A case of neurovisceral storage disease with sea-blue histiocyte and severe horizontal supranuclear ophthalmoplegia

Horikawa, H.; Juo, K.; Mano, Y.; Funakawa, I.; Takayanagi, T.

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 30(1): 62-67


ISSN/ISBN: 0009-918X
PMID: 2331823
Document Number: 366920
Neville and coauthors (1973) reported several cases of neurovisceral storage disease with vertical supranuclear gaze paresis, ataxia and other central nervous disorders. This disease is classified into Niemann-Pick disease type C because of the presence of foamy cells or sea-blue histiocytes in bone marrow, and the accumulation of sphingomyelin, cholesterol and other glycosphingolipids. In this paper, we reported a rare case of neurovisceral storage disease with severe horizontal supranuclear ophthalmoplegia and sea-blue histiocyte in bone marrow. The patient was a 9-year-old boy. He was hospitalized for unstable gait. The neurological examination revealed severe horizontal supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, moderate ataxia of four extremities and trunk, and mild dystonia of neck and four limbs on walking and standing. The ocular movement in the vertical direction was less impaired and his mentality was almost normal. The bone marrow aspiration showed a few sea-blue histiocytes. The activities of fibroblast lysosomal enzymes including sphingomyelinase were normal. The rectal biopsy revealed many foamy cells in mucous membrane and submucosa. The cell had PAS-positive and acid phosphatase-positive substances, which showed rose-red metachromasia with Feyrter's thionin method. But these abnormal cells were never stained by Sudan black B. These histochemical reactions were compatible with those of Neville's neurovisceral storage disease (Lake, 1983). Therefore we supposed the pathogenesis of this case was the same as that of Neville's cases. In this case, the horizontal supranuclear ophthalmoplegia was a unique symptom.

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