Disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS. Clinicopathologic features in seven patients from a non-endemic area

Ankobiah, W.A.; Vaidya, K.; Powell, S.; Carrasco, M.; Allam, A.; Chechani, V.; Kamholz, S.L.

New York State Journal of Medicine 90(5): 234-238

1990


ISSN/ISBN: 0028-7628
PMID: 2348942
Document Number: 366546
Although the clinical and epidemiologic features of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH) in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been well described, the pathologic and pulmonary aspects remain to be fully defined. A retrospective review of three patients and a prospective study of four more with PDH and AIDS recently admitted to an inner city hospital in a non-endemic area were used to elucidate these features more fully. All patients were men aged 23 to 46 years, born in endemic areas, who had immigrated to the US seven to 15 years before the onset of their illnesses. Five had been exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through intravenous drug use (one was also a homosexual), and two through heterosexual contacts. Respiratory symptoms were evident in five of the seven patients, fever in seven, weight loss in seven, hepatomegaly in four, splenomegaly in three, peripheral adenopathy in three, and gastrointestinal symptoms in three. PDH was the initial or only opportunistic infection in five patients. Bilateral nodular infiltrates (4/7), bilateral interstitial infiltrates (2/7), and mediastinal adenopathy associated with pleural effusion (1/7) were the chest roentgenographic findings. Histoplasma capsulatum was isolated from five of five bronchoalveolar lavages, four of four transbronchial biopsies, one of one endobronchial biopsy, one of one brushing, one of one pleural biopsy, three of three lymph node biopsies, two of two bone marrow biopsies, one of one liver biopsy, and three of four peripheral blood smears. Granuloma formation was seen in only three of 12 biopsies. There were ten or more fungi per monocyte in almost all tissues, some with extracellular forms.

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