Treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis with intravitreous ganciclovir in HIV-infected children

Surachatkumtonekul, T.; Chokephaibulkit, K.; Vanprapar, N.; Pamonvaechavan, P.

Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 91(3): 331-337


ISSN/ISBN: 0125-2208
PMID: 18575285
Document Number: 3593
Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy, visual outcomes, and complications of intravitreous ganciclovir treatment in cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in HIV-infected children.Material and Method. The medical records of HIV-infected children who were screened for CMV retinitis from February 2002 to February 2005 were reviewed The children with CD4(+) < 15%, or with clinical category C would have complete ophthalmic examination every 3 months. Ganciclovir (4 mg/0.04 ml) was administered intravitreously to the eye with CMV retinitis every 2 weeks under general anaesthesia. After injection, fundi were examined immediately, I day, 14 days and every 2 weeks until the lesions were stable.Results: Six (9 eyes) out of 45 children (13%) aged 2-12 years were found to have CMV retinitis. All CMV retinitis lesions were "cheese and ketchup like" (retinal hemorrhage and exudate) lesions and presented in the posterior pole. Bilateral CMV retinitis were found in 3 children. Intravitreous ganciclovir was injected in 4 children (5 eyes). The average number of intravitreous injections for each patient was 5.6 (3-7) times. All of the children received antiretroviral therapy and 3 children also received intravenous ganciclovir. CMV retinitis lesions were improved in every eye. The visual acuity (VA) remained stable in 4 eyes, but endophthalmitis developed in one eye a few days after injection. The average duration of follow-up was 13.5 months (3-23 months).Conclusion: CMV retinitis was not uncommon. The authors found that intravitreous ganciclovir was effective but may cause complications. This treatment should be considered in a resource-limited setting.

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Treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis with intravitreous ganciclovir in HIV-infected children