Clinical spectrum of Anderson Fabry disease in a Romanian family

Tudor, A.; Muşat, A.; Doscan, A.; Bari, M.; Zapucioiu, C.; Urdea, E.; Cochior, D.; Peţa, D.

Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine 44(2): 201-210

2006


ISSN/ISBN: 1220-4749
PMID: 17236300
Document Number: 8506
Anderson Fabry disease (alpha galactosidase A deficiency) is an X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disorder; alpha galactosidase A deficiency results in accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipids, especially globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), in various cell types promoting development of disease with renal, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular involvement. Clinical aspects which usually begin in childhood or adolescence include intermittent pain in the extremities (acroparesthesias), episodic "Fabry crisis" of acute pain lasting hours to days, characteristic skin lesions (angiokeratomas), hypohidrosis, heat and cold intolerance. Classic phenotype conception of the disease has changed within the past decade, recognizing that disease is not limited to the classical full-blown manifestation in affected males, but may also occur in carrier females. The expanding clinical spectrum of Anderson Fabry disease (AFD) is a real challenge to diagnosis, especially in some patients whose exclusive single organ manifestation belongs to the heart or kidney. This paper reviews natural history of three unrecognized cases recently diagnosed by markedly deficient alpha galactosidase A (alpha Gal A) activity in peripheral leucocytes. Case A: A male patient, aged 24 years, experienced recurrent acroparesthesia when he was 9 years-old. His 26 years-old sister has angiokeratomas as the only sign of disease (case B). Case C: the uncle of these two cases (A, B) has a long history of disease including chronic renal failure, bilateral deafness, stroke, aseptic osteonecrosis. The purpose of the presentation is to sharpen physicians' perception of this disease. Early and accurate diagnosis is mandatory considering that this disorder is now, after introduction of the novel enzyme replacement therapy, a treatable disease.

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Clinical spectrum of Anderson Fabry disease in a Romanian family