Prevalence of vascular complications and their risk factors in type 2 diabetes

Ramachandran, A.; Snehalatha, C.; Satyavani, K.; Latha, E.; Sasikala, R.; Vijay, V.

Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 47(12): 1152-1156


ISSN/ISBN: 0004-5772
PMID: 11225214
Document Number: 7403
a) To determine the prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular complications in Type 2 diabetes in India and b) to identify the major factors for the complications. A study was done in 3010 subjects (M:F 1892:1118, Mean age 52 +/- 9.7 years) attending a diabetic clinic. The study sample resembled the population sample in anthropometry, age and socioeconomic factors. All patients had undergone the tests for retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and cardiovascular disease by ECG. Retinopathy was diagnosed in 23.7% (background retinopathy in 20.0% and proliferative in 3.7%), proteinuria was present in 19.7% and persistant proteinuria of > or = 500 mg/dl was seen in 5.5% of them, CHD was present in 11.4% and PVD was present in 4.0%. Of the total 119 cases with PVD, 18 had gangrene and 21 had undergone amputations. Peripheral neuropathy was present in 27.5%. Cerebrovascular accidents were reported in 26 cases (0.9%). Hypertension was present in 38% of the cases. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that age had a significant association with retinopathy, neuropathy, CHD and PVD. Duration of diabetes had significant association with the complications other than CHD. Higher HbA1 increased the risk of retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy. Hypertension was associated with the complications except PVD and neuropathy. The strongest association was between hypertension and nephropathy. The study highlights the high prevalence of vascular complications in Type 2 diabetes in India. Retinopathy and neuropathy were the commonest complications of diabetes.

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Prevalence of vascular complications and their risk factors in type 2 diabetes