Clinical experience and comparison of ketamine-medetomidine with ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in captivity

Váhala, J.

Veterinarni Medicina 38(9): 569-578

1993


ISSN/ISBN: 0375-8427
PMID: 8236638
Document Number: 6347
The effects of two mixtures, ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-medetomidine, were compared in anesthesia of African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in the Zoopark at Dvůr Králové; the effects of these combinations were also investigated on the triad values and on the basic hematological (red blood counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin content, derived parameters MCM, MCHC, MCV, white blood counts, differential blood counting) and biochemical (total proteins, glucose, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, chlorides, sodium, potassium, alkaline phosphatase, gammα-glutamyl transferase, alanine transferase, aspartate transaminase) paramaters of blood and blood serum in anesthesia. Tab. I shows the reasons for anesthesia in 68 individuals of African wild dog in the years 1980-1990. As for both mixtures, application of drugs with a blowpipe was used. In the anesthetized anirnals, the outset of ataxia, laying down and the outset of sleep were followed (Tab. 10, as well as the time of wakening up without and with antidote administration (Tabs. IV and V). The outset of ataxia was fast (1.5±0.6 min) in the ketamine-xylazine mixture administered at doses of 5.07±1.16 mg/kg ketamine and 2.11±0.53 mg/kg xylazine, similarly like lying down (3.2±1.0 min) and loosing sensation (6.3±1.6 min). At the start of the drug action, vomitting was often observed, and sometimes in the first ten minutes after drug harpooning short clonit convulsions of the limbs or the whole body occurred. In further course, inunobilization and anesthesia were complete and satisfactory in all cases. The first reactions to outer stimuli during wakening up without antidote administration were observed in 135±11.9 minutes while the animals stood up in 210±44.5 minutes after drug harpooning (Tab. IV). When the nonspecific antidote xylazine-yohimbine was used, the first reactions after i.m. instillation at a dose of 0.31±0.02 mg/kg appeared in 20.3±0.57 min, after i.v. instillation at a dose of 0.11±0.17 it was in 9.3±4.16 min after antidote administration. The animals stood up and started walking in 53.3±24.3 min after i.v. instillation (Tab. V). No significant changes (Tab. were observed in the values of temperature, breathing rate and pulse rate when the variations of triad values were investigated in five individuals within the first 30 minutes (up to 10 min, 20 and 30 min) after drug harpooning. There were not either significant changes in the hematological and biochemical values of the blood and blood serum in twelve individuals within 30 min (up to 10 min, 20 and 30 nim) after drug harpooning. When the ketamine-medetomidine combination was administered at doses of 2.47±0.70 mg/kg ketamine and 0.020±0.005 mg/kg medetomidine, the animals were laying down in 3.1±0.8 min and they were losing sensation in 5.5±1.2 min after drug harpooning (Tab. II). Vomitting was observed in one care ohly, in all cases immobilization and anesthesia were complete. The first reactions while the drug effects were fading away without antidote administration were recorded in 62.5±19.6 min, and the animals stood up in 78.0±26.7 min after drug harpooning (Tab. IV). In i.v. instillation of the specific antidote medetomidine atipamezole at a rate of 0.16±0.04 mg/kg the first reactions occurred in 2.3±0.57 min and the animals stood up in 14.3±9.45 min after antidote administration (Tab. V). No significant variations of the values of temperature, breathing rate and pulse rate were recorded in three investigated animals within the first 30 minutes after drug harpooning. In nine animals within the first 30 minutes after drug harpooning there were no significant changes in the values of the basic hematological and biochemical parameters of the blood and blood serum except glucose concentrations in which a significant increase (P<0.05) was recorded in the third sampling 30 min after drug harpooning in comparison with the values after the first sampling within ten min after drug harpooning. A comparison of both used combinations at the given doses of drugs showed that in the ketamine-medetomidine mixture the significantly smaller amount of ketamine in the mixture was used (P<0.01). The outset of the effect and lying down is not different in both combinations but the outset of sleep is significantly faster in the ketamine-medetomidine combination (P<0.05). In this combination breathing depression was significantly lower in the initial phase (P<0.05), then the breathing rate was decreasing to the respiration rate in the ketaminexylazine combination. Arrhythmia was currently observed in both combinations. In the process of wakening up without and with antidote administration, the first reactions and standing up occurred significantly earlier (P<0.01) in anesthesia with the ketamine-medetomidine mixture.

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Clinical experience and comparison of ketamine-medetomidine with ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in captivity