Socio-economic and socio-demographic determinants of diet diversity among rural pregnant women from Pune, India

Gokhale, D.; Rao, S.

Bmc Nutrition 8(1): 54

2022


ISSN/ISBN: 2055-0928
PMID: 35787284
Document Number: 366878
Diet diversity signifies the nutrient adequacy of an individual and thus has gained widespread significance in recent times. In developing countries achieving maximum diet diversity, especially among pregnant women from rural areas is challenging although of great importance. However, to do so understanding the primary factors associated with diet diversity is important. This paper, therefore, assessed the socio-demographic and socio-economic determinants of diet diversity among rural pregnant women in India. The study consisted of a community-based prospective cohort of n = 204 pregnant women attending primary healthcare centers (PHC) across 14 villages in Mulshi Taluka, Pune, Maharashtra, India. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire through a one-to-one interview method. The prevalence of low, medium and high diet diversity was 56.4%, 33.3%, and 10.3% respectively. Minimum diversity in the diet was achieved among 73.5% of pregnant women. The mean diet diversity score (DDS) was 3.6 ± 1.3 with starchy staples being (100%) of commonly consumed foods. Young (< 20 years) women (OR = 5.2; CI:1.9- 13.8), housewives (OR = 3; CI:1.4-6.7), husbands working as skilled laborers (OR = 2.5; CI:1.2-5.5) were at significant risk of having low diet diversity scores. Whereas, those living in a joint family (OR = 0.3; CI:0.1-0.6), not owning a house (OR = 0.5; CI:0.2-0.9), and having a poor income (OR = 1.9; CI: 0.9- 3.7) were less likely to have low diet diversity. Socio-economic and demographic factors (maternal age, mother's occupation, and husband's occupation) influenced the diet diversity among pregnant women. Monotonous diets are commonly seen in developing countries, especially in rural areas which can be a risk factor for poor nutrient adequacy and health of pregnant women. Policies and programs about these determinants of diet diversity should be enacted to replace the poor quality diets to ensure improved diet diversity and nutrient adequacy.

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