Production of hydrogen peroxide by rabbit articular chondrocytes. Enhancement by cytokines

Tiku, M.L.; Liesch, J.B.; Robertson, F.M.

Journal of Immunology 145(2): 690-696


ISSN/ISBN: 0022-1767
PMID: 2114447
Document Number: 366243
Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen intermediates may play a role in the etiology of cartilage matrix degradation in arthritis. We have previously established that normal articular chondrocytes can functionally act as macrophages. These functions include expression of class II MHC Ag, presentation of Ag and induction of mixed and autologous lymphocyte stimulation. Inasmuch as the production of reactive oxygen intermediates is a hallmark of macrophage activity during inflammatory response, we were interested in examining the ability of normal articular chondrocytes to produce reactive oxygen intermediates. Using the trapped indicator 2',7' -dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), we measured the levels of intracellular hydrogen peroxide within normal rabbit articular chondrocytes. We found that Concanavalin A induces chondrocytes to rapidly oxidize 2',7' -dichlorofluorescin diacetate to a highly fluorescent dichlorofluorescin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Fluorescent dichlorofluorescin oxidation by chondrocytes was inhibited by the addition of catalase, an enzyme that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide. Exposure of rabbit chondrocytes to either IFN-.gamma. or TNF primed the chondrocytes to produce significantly greater amounts of hydrogen peroxide with or without further stimulation. Using scopoletin oxidation as a measure of the release of hydrogen peroxide, we confirmed that chondrocytes released this reactive oxygen intermediate after adherence to serum coated culture plates. Rabbit articular chondrocytes produced and released greater amounts of hydrogen peroxide than pulmonary alveolar macrophages, a well characterized macrophage cell type. These observations suggest that chondrocytes are and important source of reactive oxygen intermediates. Furthermore, the production of reactive oxygen intermediates by chondrocytes may be an important mechanism by which chondrocytes induce structural and functional alterations in cartilage matrix observed during arthritis.

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