The Horwitz ratio (HorRat) : A useful index of method performance with respect to precision

Horwitz, W.; Albert, R.

Journal - Association of Official Analytical Chemists 89(4): 1095-1109


ISSN/ISBN: 0004-5756
PMID: 16915851
Document Number: 2605
The Horwitz ratio (HorRat) is a normalized performance parameter indicating the acceptability of methods of analysis with respect to among-laboratory precision (reproducibility). It is the ratio of the observed relative standard deviation among laboratories calculated from the actual performance data, RSDR(%), to the corresponding predicted relative standard deviation calculated from the Horwitz equation PRSDR(%)=2C– 0.15, where C is the concentration found or added, expressed as a mass fraction. It is more or less independent of analyte, matrix, method, and time of publication (as a surrogate for the state of the art of analytical chemistry). It is now one of the acceptability criteria for many of the recently adopted chemical methods of analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the European Union, and other European organizations dealing with food analysis (e.g., European Committee for Standardization and Nordic Analytical Committee). The origin and applications of the formula are described. Consistent deviations from the ratio on the low side (values<0.5) may indicate unreported averaging or excellent training and experience; consistent deviations on the high side (values>2) may indicate inhomogeneity of the test samples, need for further method optimization or training, operating below the limit of determination, or an unsatisfactory method.

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The Horwitz ratio (HorRat): A useful index of method performance with respect to precision