The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Metabolic Phenotypes in Thais with Prediabetes

Nimitphong, H.; Samittarucksa, R.; Saetung, S.; Bhirommuang, N.; Chailurkit, L-Or.; Ongphiphadhanakul, B.

Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 98(12): 1169-1178


ISSN/ISBN: 0125-2208
PMID: 27004301
Document Number: 16914
To investigate the effects of vitamin D supplement for three months on anthropometric and glucose homeostatic measures in Thai adults with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Forty-seven IFG and/or IGT subjects enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomized into three groups, control (n = 18), vitamin D₂ (20,000 IU weekly, n = 19) or vitamin D₃ (15,000 IU weekly, n = 10). Anthropometric variables were obtained at baseline and at 3-month. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed at baseline and at 3-month. Total serum 25(OH)D, 25(OH)D₃, and 25(OH)D2 were measured by LC-MS/MS. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin secretion index (HOMA%B) were calculated by the homeostasis model assessment. The total 25(OH)D levels significantly increased from baseline in both the vitamin D₂ and the vitamin D₃ groups, while there was no change in the control group. D₃ supplementation raised 25(OH)D₃ significantly (+13.7 ± 4.9 ng/mL, p < 0.01) while D2 increased 25(OH)D2 levels (+25.9?4.2 ng/mL, p<0.001) but with a decrease in 25(OH)D3 (-13.1?3.1 ng/mL, p<0. 001). Subjects were classified into two groups, i.e., control (n = 18) and D₂ or D₃ supplementations (n = 29). After three months, waist circumference (WC) significantly decreased in subjects of vitamin D supplementation group. Body weight (BW p = 0.05), systolic blood pressure (SBP, p = 0.05), body mass index (BM, p = 0.06), and HOMA-IR (p = 0.09) also tended to decrease. Subjects with an increase of total 25(OH)D levels > 10 ng/mL (23 of 29 subjects) had significant decrease in HOMA-IR and increase in disposition index. Using robust regression analysis, we found the use of D3 was associated with a larger decrease in WC (coefficient = -3.5, p < 0.001) independent of the change in total 25(OH)D and baseline BMI. No difference between D₂ and D₃ was observed for other metabolic measures. Weekly supplementations of vitamin D₂ (20,000 IU) or vitamin D₃ (15,000 IU) improve metabolic phenotypes in subjects with prediabetes. D₃ supplement may decrease waist circumference more than D₂ supplement.

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The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Metabolic Phenotypes in Thais with Prediabetes