Risk Factors for Severe Enteroviral Infections in Children

Owatanapanich, S.; Wutthanarungsan, R.; Jaksupa, W.; Thisyakorn, U.

Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 99(3): 322-330

2016


ISSN/ISBN: 0125-2208
PMID: 27276744
Document Number: 16844
To study the risk factors associated with severe enterovirus infection among hospitalized pediatric patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) at King Narai Hospital, Lopburi, Thailand. We reviewed all of the suspected enterovirus infection cases aged less than 15 years admitted to King Narai Hospital between 2011 and 2013. Cases were classified into mild and severe enterovirus infection. Risk factors for severe enterovirus infection were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. During the study period, 156 patients met the case definition for further analysis. Of those 156 patients, 131 (84.0%) were classifed as mild cases, and 25 (16.0%) as severe cases with five (3.2%) deaths. The most common manifestations among the severe cases were seizures, pneumonia, meningoencephalitis, meningitis, and hyperglycemia. Of the 31 identifiable cases, 12 were caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71), 12 by coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), four by both, and three by other enterovirus. The clinical manifestations that were significantly related to severe enterovirus infection in univariate analysis were age of less than one year, highest body temperature greater than 39.0 degrees C, duration of fever greater than three days, absence of skin lesions, diarrhea, dyspnea, and hyperglycemia. The clinical manifestations that were significantly related to severe enterovirus infection by both univariate and multivariate analyses were absence of oral lesions, seizures, and drowsiness/lethargy. The major pathogens of severe disease were EV71 and CA16. High-risk factors significantly related to severe enterovirus infection in both univariate and multivariate analyses were absence of oral lesions, seizures, and drowsiness/lethargy. Early recognition of children at risk and prompt treatment is important to mitigate the deterioration of patients with enterovirus infection.

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Risk Factors for Severe Enteroviral Infections in Children