Common foot problems in diabetic foot clinic

Tantisiriwat, N.; Janchai, S.

Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 91(7): 1097-1101


ISSN/ISBN: 0125-2208
PMID: 18839852
Document Number: 11591
To study common foot problems presented in diabetic foot clinic. A retrospectively review of out patient department records and diabetic foot evaluation forms of patients who visited the diabetic foot clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital between 2004 and 2006. Of all diabetic patients, 70 men and 80 women with the average age of 63.8 years were included in this study. About 32% of all reported cases had lower extremity amputation in which the toe was the most common level. Foot problems were evaluated and categorized in four aspects, dermatological, neurological, musculoskeletal, and vascular, which were 67.30%, 79.3%, 74.0%, and 39.3% respectively. More than half of the patients had skin dryness, nail problem and callus formation. Fifty six percent had the abnormal plantar pressure area, which was presented as callus. The great toe was the most common site of callus formation, which was correlated with gait cycle. The current ulcer was 18.8%, which was presented mostly at heel and great toe. Three-fourth of the patients (75.3%) had lost protective sensation, measured by the 5.07 monofilament testing. The most common problem found in musculoskeletal system was limited motion of the joint (44.0%). Claw toe or hammer toe were reported as 32.0% whereas the other deformities were bunnion (12.0%), charcot joint (6.0%) and flat feet (5.3%). The authors classified patients based on category risk to further lower extremity amputation into four groups. Forty-seven percent had highest risk for having further amputation because they had lost protective sensation from monofilament testing, previous current ulcer, or history of amputation. Only half of the patients had previous foot care education. Multidisciplinary diabetic foot care including patient education (proper foot care and footwear), early detection, effective management of foot problems, and scheduled follow-up must be emphasized to prevent diabetes-related lower extremities amputation.

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Common foot problems in diabetic foot clinic